Friday, January 01, 2010

Ki Shem Hashem Ekra


by Cantor Sherwood Goffin
Ki Shem Hashem Ekra

I have been asked why “Ki Shem Hashem Ekra” (Devarim 32:3) appears before “Hashem S’fatai Tiftach” at the start of the Amida only for Mincha and Musaf, but is not said for Shacharit or Ma'ariv. The simple answer is that it is because, in Shacharit and Ma'ariv, the blessing of “Gaal Yisrael” is said before the Amida. Since “Ki Shem” is not an integral part of the Amida as “Hashem S’fatai” is, to say “Ki Shem” would be an invalid interruption between “Gaal Yisrael“ and the Amida. However, in Musaf and Mincha, “Gaal Yisrael” is not present (Kaddish is said before the Amida). Therefore it is acceptable to say “Ki Shem” there.

The recitation of “Ki Shem” is found in the Machzor Vitri, the most influential predecessor to our siddur, but not in the siddurim of Rav Amram Gaon or Saadia Gaon. The Rambam omits both “Ki Shem” and “Hashem Sfatai.” Rambam is, however, the Sfardi Minhag, whereas Machzor Vitri is our Ashkenazic precursor, therefore we follow the latter. The words are a meaningful preamble to our tefillot: “When I call out the name of G-d, ascribe greatness to (Him)” – i.e.: acknowledge that His ways are just, His word is true and His prophesies of Redemption will come true. From this the Talmud decides that we should make a blessing before Torah study; the “Rabbosai N’vorech” before Bentching and “Baruch Shem Kavod” to be said after the utterance of G-d’s name in the Holy Temple.



nachum said...

seems to me that it only makes sense that only the shaliach tzibur should say " ki shem" since it's a call to collective prayer
i THINK i heard that from the Rav, and i think that was his custom

Rabbi Joshua Maroof said...

Sephardic custom most definitely DOES include Hashem Sefatai, and it is explicitly codified by the Talmud so there are no Rishonim who would omit it.

Steg (dos iz nit der šteg) said...

The appendix in the back of the אזור אליהו siddur has a whole essay on the history of these introductory quotes.